Human Male Sexual Response to Olfactory Stimuli

Posted by on Mar 3, 2014 in Uncategorized |

Alan R. Hirsch, M.D., F.A.C.P., and Jason J. Gruss Smell and Taste Treatment Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois Abstract: Folk wisdom has it that various aromas are sexually enticing but no data exists demonstrating actual effects of specific odors on arousal. The present study reports the effects of 30 different scents on sexual arousal of 31 male volunteers by comparing their penile blood flow, measured b brachial penile index, while wearing scented masks and while wearing nonodorized, blank masks. Odors found generally pleasant in previous surveys were selected for this study. Each produced some increase in penile blood flow; the combined odor of lavender and pumpkin pie produced the greatest increase (40%). A multitude of mechanisms may mediate these effects. A potential application of odorants to increase penile blood flow in patients with vasculogenic impotence deserves study. Odors that may decrease penile blood flow have yet to be found for possible use in treating sexual deviants. Key Words: Odors, Sexual Response Introduction Historically, certain smells have been considered aphrodisiacs, a subject of much folklore and pseudoscience. In the volcanic remnants of Pompeii, perfume jars were preserved in the chambers designed for sexual relations. Ancient Egyptians bathed with essential oils in preparation for assignations; Sumarians seduced their women with perfumes. A relationship between smell and sexual attraction is emphasized in traditional Chinese rituals, and virtually all cultures have used perfume in their marriage rites. In mythology, rose petals symbolized scent, and the work “deflowering” describes the initial act of sex. Farcical stock characters in the popular Italian Commedia dell’Arte of the Renaissance wore long-nose masks to symbolize their phallic endowment, a tradition that lingers in the figure of Punch. Dramatic literature abounds with sly references to nasal size as symbolic of phallic size, as in the famous play Cyrano De Bergerac. Psychoanalysis has made much of these associations. Fliess, in his concept of the phallic nose, formally described an underlying link between the nose and the phallus.(1) Jungian psychology also connects odors and sex. In the modern world the pervasive promoting and use of perfumes, colognes and after-shaves as romantic enticements have produced a multibillion dollar business.(2) And the popular arts as well have seized on the theme linking olfaction and sex. The movie Scent of a Woman portrays the importance of smell and sexual attraction in our society, as does the recent novel Perfumery. The prominent connection between odors and sex among diverse historical periods and cultures implies a high level of evolutionary importance. Freud (3) suggested that odors are such strong inducers of sexual feelings that repression of smell sensations is necessary to civilization. Anatomy bears out the link between smells and sex: the area of the brain through...

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A New Horizon for the Management of Herniated Disc of Cervical and Lumbar Spine

Posted by on Mar 2, 2014 in Uncategorized |

S.M. Rezaian, M.D., Ph.D., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.S. California Orthopaedic Medical Clinic, Beverly Hills, California Introduction Neck and back pain after a common cold are the most fre- quent reason for patients seeking the physicians advice. Neck pain with radiating pain to shoulder(s), arm(s), forearrn(s) and the low back pain radiating to buttocks and thigh(s) and leg(s) are commonly caused by the herniated disc. The economic expenses and work lost due to back pain in the United States alone exceeds to $ 100,000,000,000., by year 2000 (Frymoyer, 1997). Any attempt to reduce this high expenses and long period of disabilities could not be over emphasized. As usual all neck and low back pain must be treated con- servatively for 3-6 months. After such a thorough treatment if patients was not able to return to his or her normal activities including his or her customary work. Surgical treatment is indicated. Materials and Methods We in our clinic have been engaged on using the minimal invasive technique of disc surgery for the past 17 years. We have operated on 951 patients. We have followed up these patients 2-15 years. The results have proven very much encouraging. 1) Micro-Surgical Endoscopic Diseectomy of Cervical Spine. Under general anesthesia, the patient was laid on his or her supine while an imaging intensifier with two television screens and an endoscopic with another screen were available. The level of herniated disc was visualized in television and the mark was made on the skin. Then through a small skin incision (1/8″) the anterior approach to the disc between carotid sheath laterally and tracheal and esophagus mass mediafly was completed. Disc was visualized in a television monitor and a small window was opened in annulus fibrous. Then the herniated part of the disc materials were sucked out with a shaver and different micro instrument consisted, micro- forceps, micro-curret and micro-basket. Usually the patient got up from anesthesia with no more pain. The patient went home on the same day, without surgical wound but just with a band aid. The patient resumed his activities in the next 3-7 days. 2) Micro-Surgical Endoseopic Surgery of Lumbar Spine: The technique is even more simple than the treatment of the cervical spine. The patient is placed on operating table on his or her side. The side on which the patient feels more pain is the right side for the approach. The level of surgery was identified in a television monitor and marked on the skin of the patient. Then depending on the size of the patient 10-14 cm. from the midline, the skin tissue is locally anesthetized and through a 1/8″ incision, a guide wire is directed from postero-lateral to antero-medial toward the...

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Epidemiology of Brain/Nervous System Tumors in Children

Posted by on Mar 2, 2014 in Archive |

Parviz Ghadirian, Ph.D.1,4, Kazem Fathie, M.D., Ph.D.2, Jean-Pierre Thouez, Ph.D.3 1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, and Centre de recherche, CHUM-Hotel-Dieu, Montreal, Quebec, Canada-Hospital Sainte-Justine, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 2Chairman of The American Academy of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgeons 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Montreal, and Centre de recherche, CHUM-Hotel-Dieu, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Introduction In the United States cancer is relatively less frequent among children. It has been estimated that(1) only I in 540 children will develop cancer. The relative rate of cancer occurring before the age of 15 years and among children less than 5 years of age is around 40%.(2) Although this disease is uncommon among young individuals, the mortality due it is high, accounting for more than 11% of all causes of death among children.(3) In other words, childhood cancer is the second leading cause of death, after accidents. The age-adjusted rate for all cancers combined among white children aged less than 15 years in the United States is around 14.4 per 100,000 per year, while among blacks it is 11.8 (4). The most common malignancy in children is leukemia which represents almost one-third of all cancer sites.5 Malignant neoplasms of the brain and central nervous system(CNS) are the next most common cancer in children, at about one-fifth of all cancer sites. In other words, I out of 5 cancers in children involve brain tumors. In the United States, it appears that the major types of tumors in the CNS are astrocytomas (21%), medulloblastomas (19%), gliomas (18%), glioblastomas (14%), astroblastomas (13%) and, finally, ependymomas.(6) In general, because of early detection and progress with therapeutic methods, mortality due to malignant diseases as a whole during childhood has been decreasing. Although rnortality from all cancers in children fell in recent years, the incidence of childhood brain tumors increased in Japan.(7) In England, a significant rise (1.8% on average) in the annual incidence rate for all CNS cancers, particularly for neuroectodermal rumors (3. 1 % elevation) was observed in 1974-1995.(8) These increases are not explained by an increment in the proportion of histologically-verified tumors. Genetic Factors Susceptibility to certain types of childhood cancers may also follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. For example, it has been estimated that 40% of retinoblastomas are due in part to an autosomal dominant germ cell mutation.(9) Neurofibromatosis is another autosomal dominant syndrome associated with the occurrence of cancer in childhood.(10) Socio-economic Status It appears there is no significant association between socioeconomic status, ethnicity and CNS tumors.(8) Age In general, there is no apparent age-dependency of brain and CNS cancer sites, but a specific age pattern averages for some CNS malignancies. For example, neuroblastoma...

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The Relationship of Facet Asymmetry, Spina Bifida Occulta, and Transitional Vertebrae in the Lumbar Spine to Backache

Posted by on Mar 2, 2014 in Archive |

Charles F. Xeller, M.D., Mark Sanders, M.D., Mohammed Athari, M.D. and Ralph Gibson, M.D Introduction It was the purpose of this study to demonstrate any relationship of facet asymmetry, spina bifida occulta and transitional vertebrae to the possible causation of low back pain. Now, these specific vertebral anatomical anomalies are frequently identified on plain x-ray films. In the past, there have been several studies that have analyzed the possible relationship of these anatomical variations to backache, and the results have provided a wide range of differing conclusions. It was speculated that perhaps the difference in conclusions could possibly have resulted because different physicians diagnosed these anatomical variations with different rates of accuracy. In this study, 1,000 lumbar spine AP view x-rays were interpreted by 3 separate physicians and their conclusions in diagnosing the conditions of facet asymmetry, spina bifida occulta and transitional vertebrae were recorded. The 1000 patient x-rays were selected from 1000 consecutive emergency room visits. Five hundred fifty-three (553) patients were seen for diagnoses of mechanical low back pain. Four hundred forty-seven (447) were seen for diagnoses other than mechanical low back pain, but had x-rays of the LS spine. All physicians read the x-rays in isolation from the other two doctors. The physicians were also “blinded” as to whether the patient had back pain or not. Materials and Methods One thousand consecutive patients were recorded who presented to the emergency room and had an AP x-ray demonstrating the lumbar spine. The records and subsequent files were reviewed to establish whether the patient had a presentation of significant low back pain, or a different medical problem identified (such as a urinary tract infection). For this study, significant back pain was defined as pain that prevented the performance of manual labor or resulted in a prescription for analgesic medications. The x-rays were interpreted separately by 3 physicians for the presence of facet asymmetry, spina bifida occulta and transitional vertebrae. The doctors were not aware of the diagnosis for each particular case. All results were tabulated and then a statistical analysis was performed. Of the initial 11000 cases, 914 were included in this study. There was a drop out of 86 cases due to loss of records/x-rays, patient migration, or the lack of a diagnosis. Results and Statistical Analysis Of the 914 patients studied, 514 had a spina problem that manifested as backache, and 400 had another condition, the majority of which were identified as either prostate or kidney problems. The results of x-rays interpreted for facet asymmetry, spina bifida occulta and transitional vertebrae are presented in tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Table 1. Identification of Facet Asymmetry   Dr. A Dr. B Dr. C      ...

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Epidemiology of Bone Cancer: An Overview

Posted by on Mar 2, 2014 in Archive |

Parviz Ghadirian, Ph.D., Kazem Fathie, M.D., Ph.D., Jean-Francois Emard, Ph.D. Epidemiology Research Unit Centre Hospitalier de I’Universite de Montreal- Hotel-Dieu, and Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal American Academy of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgeons Introduction Characteristics of bone cancer occurrence: Bone cancer is not a common cancer compared to many other types of cancer. The principal malignant tumors of bone are: a) osteosarcomas that occur mostly in the leg bones of children and young adults; this form is more frequent among girls under 15 and boys over 15; its incidence is higher among nonwhites than whites(1); b) chondro-sarcomas that usually afflict people over 40 years of age; this is a slow-growing tumor that often starts in the pelvic bones; and c) Ewing’s sarcoma, a cancer that impacts mainly children and teenagers; this form infiltrates large bones such as those of the thigh, upper arm, shin or pelvis; two times as many males are affected as females; a fast-growing tumor, its incidence is almost 9-fold higher among whites than blacks. According to the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program(2), osteosarcomas contribute 36% of all types of bone cancer, followed by chondrosarcomas and Ewing’s sarcomas with around 30% and 16% respectively. The incidence of osteosarcoma appears to be more frequent in two periods of life, during adolescence and old age. Regarding the geographical distribution of incidence (Table 1, Figures 1 and 2) and according to the Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), only a few countries in Africa have reliable statistics on bone cancer. Among them, Mali has the highest standardized rate among males (1.4 per 100,000), while Algeria exhibits the highest rate among females (1.2 per 100,000), with a male/female ratio ranging from 0.75 to 1.55(3). In the Americas, Chinese males in Hawaii have the highest incidence rate of bone cancer (6.4 per 100,000). Actually, this is the highest rate in the world. Among females, Paraguay has the highest incidence rate in the region (1.6 per 100,000). The highest male-female ration (9.0) in the world is found among Japanese Americans in Los Angeles, California. In the United States, Filipino males and Japanese females have the lowest incidence rates for bone cancer. Canada has a moderate frequency rate of bone cancer within the America. In Canada, Quebec seems to have the highest, and New Brunswick, the lower rate of bone cancer patients. In Europe, Poland (Silesia) has the highest incidence rate of this disease in both males and females, with 2.4 and 1.5 per 10,000 respectively, while Italy shows the lowest rates for males and females. Both France and Sweden have the highest male/female ratio (3.5). In Australia, the incidence...

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